The American Civil War    
  Elkhorn Tavern – 8 March – 7am   Scale: 1 stand = 150 men or 6 guns, start: 7am, dusk: 6pm, 1 game turn = 30 min
 

Night:
Temperatures fell rapidly after dark, making a very uncomfortable night for the men of both armies. Curtis called Davis' 3rd Division to Ruddick's field during the night. When Davis arrived he was put in line to the left of Carr. Sigel marched the 1st and 2nd Divisions in circles all night but finally had them camp near Pratt's Store. Asboth, who was wounded in the last action of the day, believed that the Union army's position was hopeless and pressed Curtis several times during the night to retreat. Though his army was now cut off from Missouri, Curtis refused to consider retreat and confidently predicted victory in the morning. A number of regiments and artillery batteries from McCulloch's Division, led by Greer, reached Van Dorn via the Bentonville Detour and Cross Timber Hollow by a night march. Van Dorn did not yet realize that a mistaken order had caused his supply train to turn around and return to Camp Stephens during the previous afternoon and evening. In the morning, the Confederate reserve artillery ammunition would be hopelessly out of reach.

Game notes:
Light artillery & flying artillery moves like horse artillery Take care to remove all destroyed units from the 2 previous Pea Ridge scenarios. Commanders that are out of action as a result of the 2 previous Pea Ridge scenarios, are replaced by a new commander who cannot be excellent.

 
     
 
CONFEDERATE FORCES Note: use troop qualities as diced for in 2 previous Pea Ridge scenarios.
Overall commander:  Earl van Dorn Cautious: he adds nothing to movement modifiers
C-in-C:  MG Stirling Price
1st Division (MG Stirling Price)
1st Missouri Brigade:        Col Henry Little              Excellent Cearnal’s Missouri Cavalry Battalion 400 /    /  
1st Missouri Cavalry: Col Elijah Gates 400 /    /  
2nd Missouri Infantry: Col Burbridge 700 /    /  
3rd Missouri Infantry: Col A. Rives 700 /    /  
Wade’s Missouri Artillery Battery 6 guns 2 stands  -
Clark’s Missouri Artillery Battery 4 guns 1 stand  -
2nd Missouri Brigade:        Col William Y Slack        deploying           Bevier’s Missouri Infantry Battalion 700 /    /  
Hughes’s Missouri Infantry Battalion 700 /    /  
Rosser’s Missouri Infantry Battalion 700 /    /  
Greene’s Missouri Infantry Battalion 4 guns 1 stand  -
8th Indiana: Col William P. Benton 700 /    /  
Missouri State Guard
Col James P. Saunders 3rd Missouri State Guard 600 6/5/4 green
7th Missouri State Guard 600 6/5/4 green
8th Missouri State Guard 600 6/5/4 green
9th Missouri State Guard 600 6/5/4 green
Saunders’ Missouri Infantry Battalion 600 6/5/4 green
Guibor’s Missouri Battery 4 guns 1 stand  -
MacDonald’s Missouri Battery 3 guns 1 stand  -
C-in-C:  Gnl B McCulloch Excellent
1st Division (MG Stirling Price)
Brigadier General James McIntosh  1st Texas cavalry 430 /    /  
3rd Texas Cavalry: Col Elkanah Greer 430 /    /  
6th Texas Cavalry: Col B. Warren Stone 430 /    /  
9th Texas Cavalry: Col William B. Sims 430 /    /  
11th Texas Cavalry: Col William C. Young 430 /    /  
1st Arkansas Cavalry: Maj William H. Brooks 430 /    /  
Col. Louis Hébert          3rd Louisiana Infantry: Maj Will F. Tunnard 500 /    /  
4th Arkansas Infantry: Col Evander McNair 500 /    /  
14th Arkansas Infantry: Col William C. Mitchell 500 /    /  
15th Arkansas Infantry: Col Dandridge McRae 500 /    /  
16th Arkansas Infantry: Col John F. Hill 500 /    /  
17th Arkansas Infantry: Col Frank A. Rector 500 /    /  
1st Arkansas Mtd Rifles: Col Thomas J. Churchill 500 /    /  
2nd Arkansas Mtd Rifles: Col Benjamin T. Embry 500 /    /  
4th Texas Cavalry Battalion: Maj John W. Whitfield 430 /    /  
Artillery Hart’s Arkansas Battery: Cpt William Hart 4 guns 1 stand  -
Provence’s Arkansas Battery: Cpt David Provence 4 guns 1 stand  -
Gaines’s Arkansas Battery: Cpt James J. Gaines 4 guns 1 stand  -
Good’s Texas Battery: Cpt John J. Good 4 guns 1 stand  -
Brig. Gen. Albert Pike 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles: Col John Drew 400 4/-/3 green
2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles: Col Stand Watie 400 4/-/3 green
 
     
  Troop deployment at Elkhorn Tavern
In the early morning, Sigel sent Osterhaus to scout the open prairie to the west of Elkhorn. The colonel discovered a knoll that promised to make an excellent artillery position and reported it to Sigel. Osterhaus also suggested that the 1st and 2nd Divisions simply march up the Telegraph Road and deploy on Davis' left, rather than retrace the route of the previous evening; Sigel agreed with his advice and his wing was put into motion. In the meantime, Davis ordered an Illinois battery to fire a few salvos into the woods opposite his position. This provoked a sharp Confederate reaction. Three Southern batteries opened fire, causing two Federal batteries to retreat and Davis to pull his men out of the open and back into the woods. This was followed by a Confederate probe which was quickly driven back. Soon Sigel's men extended in a long line to the left of Davis. By 8:00 a.m., Asboth's division took its place on the far left, then came Osterhaus, Davis and Carr, with the Union line generally facing north. It was possibly the only time during the war an entire army was visibly deployed in one continuous line of battle from flank to flank. Sigel now massed 21 cannons on the open knoll to the west of Elkhorn. With Sigel in personal control, the Federal artillery began an extremely effective fire against the 12 Southern guns opposed to them. When the Confederate gunners pulled back under the deadly fire, Van Dorn ordered two batteries to take their place. After one of the new batteries panicked and fled, Van Dorn put its commander under arrest. But the Southern commander was unable to counter Sigel's devastating fire. Return fire from the Confederate artillery was ineffective and few Federals were killed. With the opposing guns rendered nearly harmless, Sigel directed his gunners to fire into the woods at the Confederate infantry. Near the base of Big Mountain the projectiles created a deadly combination of rock shrapnel and wood splinters, driving the 2nd Missouri Brigade from its positions. "It was one of the few times in the Civil War when a preparatory artillery barrage effectively softened up an enemy position and paved the way for an infantry assault." During the bombardment, Sigel's infantry edged forward so that by 9:30 a.m. his divisions had executed a right wheel and faced to the northeast
 
     
 
UNION FORCES Note: use troop qualities as diced for in 2 previous Pea Ridge scenarios.
Samuel R. Curtis present as overall commander, but Franz Sigel in active command.
Curtis may take command as he sees fit.
C-in-C:  Gnl Franz Sigel Excellent
4th Division Col Eugene Carr - Excellent
1st Brigade:                         Col Grenville M. Dodge 4th Iowa: Ltc John Galligan 600 /    /  
35th Illinois: Col Gustavus A. Smith 530 /    /  
3rd Illinois Cavalry: Maj John McConnell 300 /    /  
1st Independent battery, Iowa Light Artillery 4 guns 1 stand  -
2nd Brigade:                         Col William Vandever 6th Iowa: Ltc Francis J. Herron 500 /    /  
24th Missouri volunteer infantry 500 /    /  
25th Missouri: Col John S. Phelps 600 /    /  
3rd independent battery, Iowa Light Artillery 6 guns 2 stands  -
8th Indiana: Col William P. Benton 500 /    /  
2nd Division BG Alexander Asboth
1st Brigade:                       Col F Schaefer 2nd Missouri: Ltc Bernard Laiboldt 500 /    /  
15th Missouri: Col Francis J. Joliat 500 /    /  
1st Missouri Flying Artillery Battery  6 guns 2 stands  -
1st Division Col Peter J. Osterhaus
2nd Brigade:                         Col N Gruesel 36th Illinois: Col Nicholas Gruesel 530 /    /  
12th Missouri: Maj Hugo Wangelin 530 /    /  
4th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery 6 guns 2 stands  -
Cavalry Brigade:                    Bussey 1st Missouri Cavalry: Col Calvin A. Ellis 300 /    /  
4th Missouri Cavalry 300 /    /  
5th Missouri Cavalry 300 /    /  
Welfley’s Independent Battery, Missouri Light Artillry 3 guns 1 stand  -
re-attached to Osterhaus Division. 25th Illinois: Col William N. Coler 500 /    /  
44th Illinois: Col Charles Knobelsdorff 500 /    /  
17th Missouri: Maj August H. Poten 600 /    /  
Artillery Battery 6 guns 2 stands  -
Artillery Battery 6 guns 2 stands  -
3rd Division Col Jefferson C. Davis
1st Brigade:                       Col T Pattison 18th Indiana: Ltc Henry D. Washburn 530 /    /  
22nd Indiana: Ltc John A. Hendricks  530 /    /  
1st Battery Indiana Light Artillery: Cpt Martin Klauss 3 guns 1 stand  -
2nd Brigade:                       Col Julius White 37th Illinois: Ltc Myron Barnes 530 /    /  
59th Illinois: Ltc Calvin H. Frederick 530 /    /  
3rd Iowa Cavalry 300 /    /  
 
 
 
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9:30 AM
By this time Van Dorn found that his reserve artillery ammunition was with the wagon train, a six hour march away.
The Southern commander bitterly realized that he had no hope of victory and decided to retreat via the Huntsville Road. This route led east from the tavern, then turned south. With Price wounded but still in command of the rear guard, Van Dorn's army began to move toward the Huntsville Road in some confusion. At 10:30 a.m., Sigel sent his two divisions forward to the attack. On the far left, Asboth's regiments drove the 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles from the point of Big Mountain. Osterhaus was resisted by Little's 1st Missouri Brigade. Soon, Curtis ordered Davis to attack in the center. Not realizing that the Confederate army was retreating past his right flank, Curtis held Carr's mauled division in position on the right. Van Dorn joined the retreat about 11:00 a.m. Sometime around noon, Sigel's soldiers met Davis' men near Elkhorn Tavern and a great cry of "Victory" was sent up. A number of Southerners were cut off and escaped up the Wire Road into Cross Timber Hollow. From there the infantry retraced their steps on the Bentonville Detour. Several batteries marched northeast into Missouri then south through the Ozarks. In the confusion, Curtis failed to understand that Van Dorn had escaped on the Huntsville Road. Thinking that Van Dorn had retreated via Cross Timber Hollow, he sent Sigel and some cavalry to pursue in that direction. Instead of taking the forces Curtis assigned for the pursuit, Sigel gathered both of his divisions and marched northeast toward Keetsville, Missouri. Near there, he requested that Curtis send his supply train to that place. "I am going forward not backward," remarked an annoyed Curtis to his staff. On March 9, Sigel finally returned to the battlefield and admitted that the Southern main body had not retreated by way of Missouri. Though the Confederate army had been allowed to escape relatively intact, the Union victory at Pea Ridge solidified Federal control over Missouri for the next two years.


Result of the wargame:
Union victory

 
     
 
 
Time table
07:00 start
07:30  
08:00  
08:30  
09:00  
09:30  
10:00  
10:30  
11:00  
11:30  
12:00  
12:30  
13:00  
13:30  
14:00  
14:30  
15:00  
15:30  
16:00  
16:30  
17:00  
17:30  
18:00